ALL ABOUT CANCERS, STAGING, GRADING AND MANAGEMENT( Oncology)

 

 

Difference between cancer grading and staging

STAGING

Away of classifying or grouping malignant tumors and cancers how it progresses from one system to a second one through the body called metastasis.
Staging range from stage 0-IV depending on the type of cancer
TNM System
Its anther way in which cancers can be staged
The TMN system is short for tumor,node,metastasis

GRADING

Tumor grading is the comparison between normal and abnormal cells under a microscope
This gives the doctor the idea on how the cancer might behave
Common grading systems
There are generally 3 grading systems
G1,G2,G3

Grade 1
Cancer looks like similarly the normal cells n its growing slowly (low grade)

Grade 2
The cells do not look normal and are growing faster than the normal ones (intermediate grade)

Grade 3
here the cancer cells look very abnormal and grow very faster than the normal cells (high grade)

GX
means that doctors cant assess the grade , its called undetermined grade

Differences

Staging uses TNM system while grading uses letter X
Grading main focal point is on microscopic appearance of cells compared to staging which doesn’t
Grading describes the appearance of the cancerous cells while staging describes the size of
the tumor

Risk factors of bladder carcinoma

Tobacco use
Age
Gender
Race
Chemicals
Previous radiation therapy of the pelvis
Chronic bladder problems
Cyclophosphamide use
Pioglitazone
Personal history
Schistosomiasis
Lynch syndrome
Arsenic exposure

 

Bladder carcinoma

Pathophysiology OF Bladder carcinoma

There are two path ways which describes the development of the
carcinoma these are the
1.invasive pathway and
2.noninvasive pathway
Papillary pathway rises from the moderate cycling urothelium of the bladder, it made of the basal cells,umbrella cells and the Intermediate cells that line line bladder tissue which is normally
replaced with in 6-12 months. Cell tissue is a limit of urothelial
stem cell with self renting ability making it more suspicious for
malignancy.
The cancer develops when the hyper plastic urothelial stem cells
begins to encroaching on the lumen of the bladder.This will alter
several proto-ongenes .
Both the oncogene play a big role in turning onRas/MEK/ERK pathway .
Contraversly invasive urothelial cancers rise from one 9f the two mechanisms namely severe carcinoma in situ.
These result into deactivation of TP53,RB1 or PTEN pathways
with the tumor inhibiting effect maturation in
PI3K,TSC1,PTCH,CDKN2A and DBC1.
30% of bladder cancers encroach and have poor out come.
60% of cases die with in 5years of diagnosis and great percentage of the cases cannot be cured after occurrence of the metastases.

 

CERVICAL CANCER

It’s mainly caused by high risk strains of HPV,mainly type 16 and 18 had been identified as the
cause of cancer cervix,this widely disrupts the cell cycle growth and regulations.
The great risk of HPN E6 and E7 gene are produced which help in the viral multiplication and
angiogenesis bind to p53 and prevents its normal activities which is G1 arrest and DNA repair
The HPV transpire the squamous epithelium cells in the cervix in the junction zone where the columnar and squamous cells meet that’s where the transcription and replication begins
HPV infection enters the basal layers through different forms of entry
There are other forms in which cause the prognosis of cervical neoplasms,….they are
Oral contraceptives
Smoking
Early age sex
Co infection

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qn4

Stage 2 and stage3 cancer differences explained with the diagrams as applied in question 3s

 

Cervical cancer
In stage 2 the it has spread to the out side of the cervix to the near by tissue and the main
treatment they do chemo-radiotherapy and some times surgery while In stage 3 the cancer has spread from the cervix to the near by structures surrounding the cervix.
Although they she the same treatment type

 

Bladder carcinoma
In stage 2 in this stage the cancer spreads in to the think muscle layers of the bladder and it has
not yet extend to the fatty layers and also has not yet touched the lymph nodes and other organs while In stage 3 it has spread throughout the muscle and fatty layer of the tissue of the
bladder ,prostate, uterus,vagina and the lymph nodes

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